Through tempering, we can see that chocolate is very sensitive and they are solid at 5 C and liquid at 36 C. (Reinke et al., 2015). The complex flavour created in the chocolate is because of the cocoa butter. As the cocoa butter is a polymorphic fat formed by three main triglycerides. These fatty acids will form a chain and finally a backbone to create a strong bond. If the cocoa butter is in this state, the chocolate can form a glossy surface, smooth texture and creates a snap after tempering. (Tisoncik, 2017).
However, if the compound for cocoa butter does not form properly, it can result a white stripy on the chocolate – fat bloom. There’s a few reason that forms a fat bloom. The cause can be the temperature fluctuates relatively high, such as transportation has a temperature of 5 C to 10 C that the chocolate is starting to melt. Another result is due to the dirty moulds that the residue sticks to the chocolate and forms a layer of mark. Some of the other reasons are the insufficient cooling, bad tempering, formulation and interaction with inclusions. (Tisoncik, 2017).
There are ways to prevent fat bloom as tempering need to be carried out in the right technique. Secondly, the person who is carrying out the process of chocolate should have the knowledge of formulation. Lastly, proper storage is also very important for not forming fat bloom.
Other than fat bloom, sugar bloom is also another effect that result a bad quality chocolate. It is due to the humidity and the condensation of the chocolate. The sugar recrystallises to fast and form a white, grainy texture on the surface. To avoid, use a clean and dry mould as well as pack well and store in low humidity refrigerator with constant temperature.
Reinke, S., Roth, S., Santoro, G., Vieira, J., Heinrich, S. and Palzer, S. (2015). Tracking Structural Changes in Lipid-based Multicomponent Food Materials due to Oil Migration by Microfocus Small-Angle X-ray Scattering. [online] Confectionery news.com. Available at: http://www.confectionerynews.com/R-D/Chocolate-fat-bloom-causes-identified-Nestle-backed-study [Accessed 19 Jun. 2017].
Tisoncik, M. (2017). The Manufacturing Confectioner. [ebook] Princeton: Bloomer Chocolate Company, pp.65-68. Available at: http://www.blommer.com/_documents/Chocolate-Fat-Bloom-article.pdf [Accessed 19 Jun. 2017].